Basic Helix Traveling Wave Tube
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The Traveling Wave Tubes differs from the klystron in that the radio-frequency field is not confined to a limited region but is distributed along a wave-propagating struture. A longitudinal electron beam interact continuesly with the field of a wave traveling along this wave-propagating structure. In its most common form, it is an amplifier, although there are related types of tubes that are basically oscillators.
The principle of operation may be understood by reference to Fig. 16. An electron stream is produced by an electron gun, travels along the axis of the tube, and is finally collected by a suitable electrode. Spaced closely around the beam is a circuit, in this case a helix, capable of propagating a slow wave. The circuit is proportioned so that the phase velocity of the wave is small with respect to the velocity of light. In typical low-power tubes, a value of the order of one-tenth of the velocity of light is used; for higher power tubes the phase velocity may be two or three times higher. Suitable means are provided to couple an external radio-frequency circuit to the slow wave structure at the input and output. The velocity od the electron stream is adjusted to be approximately the same as the axial phase velocity of the wave on the circuit.
When a wave is launched on the circuit, the longitudinal component of its field interacts with the electrons traveling in approximate synchronism with it. Some electrons will be accelerated and some decelerated, resulting in a progressive rearrangement in phase of the electrons with respect to the wave. The electron stream , thus modulated, in turn induces additional waves on the helix. This process of the mutual interaction continues along the length of the tube with the net result that direct-current energy is given up by the electron stream to the circuit as the radio -frequency energy, and the wave is thus amplified.Three Phase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit Diagram
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC), a process known as rectification. This almost always involves the use of some device that only allows one-way flow of electrons, a diode. Below schematic diagram shows a Three-Phase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit Diagram. Each three-phase line connects between a pair of diodes: one to route power to the positive (+) side of the load, and the other to route power to the negative (-) side of the load.Full wave Phase Control Using Lower Voltage DIAC Circuit Diagram
The DIAC, or diode for alternating current, is a trigger diode that conducts current only after its breakdown voltage has been exceeded momentarily. Most DIAC have a breakdown voltage around 30 V. The DIAC is widely used in both industrial applications, such as hand tools and in lighting applications, specifically electronic lamp ballasts, the electric transformer for halogen lamps and light dimmers. (click image to enlarge).Basic of Difference Op Amp Circuit Diagram
A difference amplifier / difference op amp amplifies the difference of two input signals. It functions as a subtractor. It has two inputs and one output, thus amplifies the difference between the voltages at the two inputs. The difference amplifier is useful for handling floating signal sources. The following schematic shows the Difference Op Amp Circuit Diagram. There are two resistors Rf and Rf ‘ as well as two Ri and Ri ‘ resistors.Basic Inverting Op Amp Circuit Diagram
An inverting amplifier uses negative feedback to invert and amplify a voltage. Negative Feedback is the process of "feeding back" some of the output signal back to the input. The Negative feedback is achieved by bringing a fraction of the output signal to the inverting input of the op-amp by using an external Feedback Resistor called Rf.The Basic Theory of Power MOSFET
Power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle large amounts of power. The metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is based on the original field-effect transistor introduced in the 70s. Beside diagram shows the device schematic, transfer characteristics and device symbol for a MOSFET.Download basic helix traveling wave tube in [getwiringdiagram.com] which provided circuit and wiring diagram for automotive, car, motorcycle, truck, audio, radio, electronic devices, home and house appliances.
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