Classes of Ceramic Capacitors based on their Distinct and Inherent Electrical Properties
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Ceramic capacitors are defined in classes based on their distinct and inherent electrical properties.
Class I capacitors are stable temperature-compensating capacitors that have essentially linear characteristics with properties independent of frequency over the normal range. Materials are usually magnesium titanate for positive temperature coefficient of capacitance and calcium titanate for negative temperature coefficient of capacitance. Combinations of these and other materials produce a dielectric constant of 5 to 150 and temperature coefficient of capacitance of + 150 to —4700 ppml°C with tolerances of ± 15 ppni/°C. Low-K ceramics are suitable for resonant-circuit or filter applications, particularly where temperature compensation is a requirement. Disc and tubular types are the best forms for this purpose. Stability of capacitance is good, being next to that of mica and polystyrene capacitors.
Class II includes ceramic dielectrics suitable for fixed capacitors used for bypass, coupling, and decoupling. This class is usually divided into two subgroups for which the temperature characteristics define the characteristics.
(A) Embody stable K values of 250 to 2400 over a temperature range of —55 °C to + 125 °C with maximum capacitance change 15% from a 25
(B) Embody combinations of materials, including titanates, with K values of 3000 to 12 000 made by keeping the Curie point near room ambient.
The high-K materials are the ferroelectrics. Because of their crystal structure, they sometimes have very high values of internal polarization, giving very high effective dielectric constants. In this way, these materials are comparable with ferromagnetic materials. Above the Curie temperature, a change of domain structure occurs that results in a change of electrical characteristics. This region is known as the par electric region. In common with the ferromagnetic materials, a hysteresis effect is apparent, and this makes the capacitance voltage- dependent.
The ferroelectrics are based on barium titanate, which has a peak dielectric constant of 6000 at the Curie point of 120 °C. Additions of barium stanate, barium zirconate, or magnesium titanate reduce this dielectric constant but make it more uniform over the temperature range. Thus a family of materials can be obtained with a Curie point at about room temperature and with the dielectric constant falling off on either side. The magnitude of this change increases with increasing dielectric constant. These materials exhibit a decrease of capacitance with time and, as a result of the hysteresis effect, with increasing voltage.
Inductance in the leads and element causes parallel resonance in the megahertz region. Care is necessary in their application above about 50 megahertz for tubular styles and about 500 megahertz for disc types.
Class III includes reduced barium titanate in which a reoxidized layer or diffusion zone is the effective dielectric. Also included are internal grain boundary layer strontium titanate capacitors in which an internal insulating layer surrounds each grain. These capacitors are suitable for use in low-voltage circuits for coupling and bypass where low insulation resistance and voltage coefficient can be tolerated.
The significance of the various colored dots for EIA Standard RS-198-B (ANSI C83.4-l972) fixed ceramic dielectric capacitors is explained by Figs. 16 and 17 and may be interpreted from Table 17.
Standard temperature coefficients of capacitance expressed in parts per million per degree Celsius are:
+150, +100, +33, 0, —33, —75, —150, —220, —330, —470, —750, —1500, —2200, —3300, and —4700.
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