Mica Capacitors Low Loss and Good Capacitance Stability
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On: 07 Jul, 2017
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Mica capacitors fall within the classification of low loss and good capacitance stability. Mica is one of the earliest dielectric materials used and has an unrivaled combination of physical and electrical characteristics. It is of mineral origin and, because of its monoclinic structure, can be readily split into thin plates. It has a dielectric constant of about 6 (largely independent of frequency) together with a very low loss.
Mica capacitor constructions of the eyelet, molded, bonded, and button styles have been largely replaced by precision polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyester plastic film capacitors and by ceramic capacitors. The main surviving style is the dipped epoxy-coated radial- leaded capacitor using a clamp-type silvered mica stack with tin electrodes.
Their low temperature coefficient of capacitance and good stability with temperature and frequency make mica capacitors a good choice for critical precision circuitry such as filter applications.
A comprehensive numbering system, the type design ation, is used to identify mica capacitors. Type designations are of the form shown in Fig. 18. MIL specifications now require type designation marking. Color coding is now used only for ETA standard capacitors.
Component Designation—Fixed mica-dielectric capacitors are identified by the symbol CM. For ETA, a prefix letter R is always included, and dipped types are identified by the symbol DM.
Case Designation—The case designation is a two- digit symbol that identifies a particular case size and shape.
Characteristic—The ETA or MIL characteristic is indicated by a single letter in accordance with Table 18.
Capacitance Value—The nominal capacitance value in picofarads is indicated by a three-digit number. The first two digits are the first two digits of the capacitance value in picofarads. The final digit specifies the number of zeros that follow the first two digits. For ETA, if more than two significant figures are required, an additional digit is used, and the letter “R” is inserted to designate the decimal position.
Capacitance Tolerance—The symmetrical capacitance tolerance in percent is designated by a letter as shown in Table 1.
Voltage Rating—MIL voltage ratings are designate d by a single letter as follows. A = 100, B = 250, C = 300,D500,E600,F l000,G= 1200,H= 1500, J = 2000, K = 2500, L = 3000, M = 4000,
N = 5000, P = 6000, Q = 8000, R = 10 000, S = 12000,T 15000,U=20000,V=25000,W=
30 000, and X = 35 000 volts. ETA dc working voltage is a number designating hundreds of volts.
Temperature Range—Mit specifications provide for four temperature ranges, all of which have a lower limit of —55 °C; the upper limits are M = +70, N = +85,0 = + 125, andP = +150°C. The EIA uses only N and 0, which are identical to the MIL standard.
Vibration Grade—The MIL vibration grade is a number, 1 corresponding to vibration from 10 to 55 hertz at lOg for 4.5 hours and 3 corresponding to 10 to 2000 hertz at 20 g for 12 hours.
Capacitance is measured at 1 megahertz for capacitors of 1000 picofarads or smaller. Larger capacitors are measured at 1 kilohertz.
Measurements to determine the temperature coefficient of capacitance and the capacitance drift are based on one cycle over the following temperature values (all in degrees Celsius): +25, —55, —40, —10, +25, +45, +65, +70, +85, +125, +150, +25. Measurements at
+ 85, + 125, and + 150 are not made if these values are not within the applicable temperature range of the capacitor.
The ETA and MIL specifications require that for molded and dipped capacitors the dissipation factor not exceed the values shown in Fig. 19. For potted and cast epoxy capacitors, the dissipation factor shall not exceed 0.35 percent from 1 to 1000 picofarads and 0.15 percent above 1000 picofarads.
High-Potential or Withstanding-Voltage Test
Molded or dipped mica capacitors are subjected to a test potential of twice their direct-current voltage rating.
Humidity and Thermal-Shock Tests
EIA Standard RS-153-B capacitors must withstand 5 cycles of —55, +25, +85, or + 125 (as applicable), and +25 degrees Celsius thermal shock followed by a humidity test of 10 cycles (each of 24 hours) given for
EIA Standard RS-186-D in Fig. 1. Units must pass a withstanding-voltage test. Capacitance may not change by more than 1 .0 percent or 1.0 picofarad, whichever is greater. Insulation resistance must meet or exceed 30 percent of the initial requirements at 25 °C (50 000 megohms for capacitances of 20 000 picofarads or less; 1000 ohm-farads for larger capacitances).
MIL Specification MIL-C-5D capacitors must with stand 5 cycles of —55; +25; +85, + 125, or +150 (as applicable); and +25 degrees Celsius thermal shock followed by a humidity test of 10 cycles (each of 24 hours) given for MIL-STD-202E in Fig. 1. Units must pass a withstanding-voltage test. Capacitance may not change by more than ± (0.2 percent + 0.5 picofarad). Insulation resistance must meet or exceed 30 percent of the initial requirements at 25 °C (100 000 megohms for 10 000 picofarads or less; 1000 megohm-microfarads for larger capacitances).
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Capacitors are given accelerated life tests at 85 degrees Celsius with 150 percent of rated voltage applied for 2000 hours for MIL specification or 250 hours for EIA standard. If capacitors are rated above +85 °C, the test will be at their maximum rated temperature.
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