Skin, Symbols, and General Consideration Effect
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A = correction coefficient
D = diameter of conductor in inches
f = frequency in hertz
Rac = resistance at frequency f
RdC = direct-current resistance
Rsq = resistance per square
T = thickness of tubular conductor in inches T1 = depth of penetration of current
= skin depth
A = free-space wavelength in meters Pr = relative permeability of conductor material
(ILr = I for copper and other nonmagnetic materials)
p = resistivity of conductor material at any temperature
= resistivity of copper at 20 °C = 1.724 microhms-centimeter
The skin depth is that distance below the surface of a conductor where the current density has diminished to lie of its value at the surface. The thickness of the conductor is assumed to be several (perhaps at least three) times the skin depth. Imagine the conductor replaced by a cylindrical shell of the same surface shape but of thickness equal to the skin depth, with uniform current density equal to that which exists at the surface of the actual conductor. Then the total current in the shell and its resistance are equal to the corresponding values in the actual conductor.
The skin depth and the resistance per square (of any 6 = (1.50 X 104A”2)k1
size), in meter-kilogram-second (rationalized) units, = (2.60/f 2)k1 inch
are 6m = (2.60/fmc112)ki mu
Rsq = (4.52 x I03/A”2)k2
8 (A/ircric)U2 = (2.61 X 10f112)k2 ohm
Rsq = 1/8o k2 = (I4P/P)
k1, k2 = unity for copper
Example: What is the resistance/foot of a cylindrical
6 = skin depth in meters, copper conductor of diameter D inches?
R = resistance per square in ohms,
c = velocity of light in vacuo R = (l2/3TD)Rsq
= 2.998 X iO meter/second,
= X iO !Lr hen/meter, = (l2/D) X 2.61 X iO_?(fU2)
I/o- = 1.724 X 10—8 p/p ohm-meter.
= 0.996 X 106(f”2)/D ohm/foot
For numerical computations
6 = (3.82 X iO A”2)k1 If D = 1.00 inch andf= 100 X 106 hertz, then R =
= (6.61/f’2)k1 centimeter 0.996 x 10-6 x iO 1 x 10-2 ohm/foot.
Fig. 7 shows the relationship of Rac/RdC versus D(f”2) for copper, or versus D(f02)(pp/p)”2 for any conductor material, for an isolated straight solid Cond uctor of circular cross section. Negligible error in the equations for Rac results when the conductor is spaced at least lOD from adjacent conductors. When the spacing between axes of parallel conductors carrying the same current is 4D, the resistance Rac is increased about 3 percent, when the depth of penetration is small. The equations are accurate for concentric lines due to their circular symmetry.
For values of D(f112)(I.LrPc/p)”2 greater than 40
Rac/Rdc = 0.0960 D(fU2)(,.L,p/p)2 + 0.26 (Eq. 1)
The high-frequency resistance in ohms/foot of an isolated straight conductor (either solid or tubular for T <D/8 or T1 <D/8) is given in Eq. (2). If the current is along the inside surface of a tubular conductor, D is the inside diameter.
Rac = A[(f112)/D1[I.Lr(P/Pc)1 1/2 x 106
The values of the correction coefficient A for solid conductors and for tubular conductors are given in Table 4.
The value of T(f02)(/Irpc/P)02 that just makes A = I indicates the penetration of the currents below the surface of the conductor. Thus, approximately
T1 = [3.5/(f2)l(P/prPc)U2
where T1 is in inches.
When T1 <D/8, the value Of Rac as given by Eq. (2) (but not the value of Rac/Rdc in Table 4, “Tubular Conductors”) is correct for any value T T1.
Under the limitation that the radius of curvature of all parts of the cross section is appreciably greater than T1,
General Motors Radio Wire Harness Color Diagram
The following wire harness applies for General Motors Radio. Herein you will find detail information about the color diagram of GM radio wire harness e.g. Pin A for right rear speaker has a light blue color for typical GM factory in Dash Wire Color while it is purple with black stripe for typical new radio equivalent wire color. Another example, Pin B for left rear speaker is yellow for typical GM factory in Dash Wire Color, while it is green with black stripe for typical new radio equivalent wire color. (Source: installdr.com)Wiring Diagrams Symbols
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A switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. A multi-way electronic control switch having a central control unit and a plurality of remote touch pads. They may have 3 or more conducting position and several poles (contact sets).House Home Wiring Diagrams Codes and Symbols
The following article is complete reference for home/house wiring diagrams, codes and symbols. In this manual you will find various type of wiring diagram and electrical components symbols for house or home compliance.Home House Electrical Circuit Symbols and Design Layout
The following table outlines home/house electrical circuit symbols and wiring codes.Download skin, symbols, and general consideration effect in [getwiringdiagram.com] which provided circuit and wiring diagram for automotive, car, motorcycle, truck, audio, radio, electronic devices, home and house appliances.
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