Some Characteristics of a Magneto resistive Sensor

Some Characteristics of a Magneto resistive Sensor

Published by: Aria

On: 17 Jun, 2017

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Category: Sensors

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A magnetic field applied to a current-carrying conductor causes deviation of some electrons from their path. In addition to the Hall voltage (Section 4.3.2), there is a current decrease, which results in an increased electric resistance.


In most conductors this magneto resistive effect is of a second order when compared to the Hall effect. But in anisotropic materials, such as ferromagnetic, their resistance depends on their state of magnetization. Then the effect of an external applied magnetic field is more pronounced and the resistance varies from 2% to 5%. The relation between change in resistance and magnetic field intensity is not linear but quadratic; however, it is possible to linearize it by using biasing methods [8].


If we ignore this need for linearization and their thermal dependence, magneto resistors offer several advantages as compared with other magnetic sensors. First, their mathematical model is a zero-order system. This differs from inductive sensors in which response depends on the time derivative of magnetic flux density.
When compared with Hall effect sensors, which also have a first-order model, magneto resistors show increased sensitivity, temperature range, and frequency pass band (from dc to several megahertz, compared with 25 kHz for Hall effect sensors).


Magneto resistors are manufactured from perm alloy, which is an alloy of approximately 20% iron and 80% nickel. Also Ni—Fe—Co and Ni—Fe—Mo alloys have been tried. Table 2.5 gives characteristics of a commercially available sensor which has four elements forming a Wheatstone bridge [9].


The proposed applications can be divided into those related to the direct measurement of magnetic fields and those related to the measurement of other quantities by means of a magnetic field variation. The first group includes magnetic audio recording (free of perturbations due to tape speed fluctuations) and reading machines for credit cards and magnetically coded price tags.


In the second group are the measurement of linear and angular displacements, proximity switches, and position measurement. In all these applications the moving object must produce a change in a magnetic field. To accomplish this, it must be either a metallic object (or an object with a metallic covering or an identifier) placed in a constant magnetic field, or the moving element to be detected must incorporate a permanent magnet.

LM317A Electrical Characteristics Table and Diagram

The following file provides detail specifications of the LM317 and LM317A electrical characteristics. The electrical characteristics discuss herein includes reference voltage, line regulation, load regulation, thermal regulation, adjustment pin current, adjustment pin current change, temperature stability, minimum load current, current limit, RMS Output Noise, Ripple Rejection Ratio, Long-Term Stability, Thermal Resistance (Junction-to-Case), and Thermal Resistance (Junction-to-Ambient).

Polaris Trail Boss 330 Magneto Wiring Harness

The following schematic shows a typical diagram/schematic of Polaris Trail Boss 330 Magneto.

Mass Air Flow MAF Sensor Circuit Diagram

The following schematic shows a typical circuit diagram of the Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor system. The mass air flow sensors converts the amount of air drawn into the engine into a voltage signal. The primary components of the MAF sensor are thermistor, a platinum hot wire, and an electronic control circuit. The thermistor measures the temperature of the incoming air.

LM65 Digital Temperature Sensor and Fan Control Datasheet

The LM56 is a precision low power thermostat. The LM56 has two digital outputs. OUT1 goes LOW when the temperature exceeds T1 and goes HIGH when the the temperature goes below (T1–THYST). The LM56 is available in an 8-lead Mini-SO8 surface mount package and an 8-lead small outline package. This device features digital outputs support TTL logic levels, internal temperature sensor, 2 internal comparators with hysteresis, internal voltage reference, and available in 8-pin SO and Mini-SO8 plastic packages. This device is applicable in wide range application such as in Microprocessor Thermal Management, Appliances, Portable Battery Powered 3.0V or 5V Systems, Fan Control, Industrial Process Control, HVAC Systems, Remote Temperature Sensing, Digital Temperature Sensor and Electronic System Protection.

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit Diagram

The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor responds to change in Engine Coolant Temperature. By measuring engine coolant temperature, the ECM (Engine Control Module) knows the average temperature of the engine and tells the computer what the engine temperature is so that optimum driveability is realized while the engine is warming up and when the engine has reached operating temperature. The following schematic shows a typical circuit diagram of the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor.

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