System used to define drift referred to the input
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The most useful measure of the drift of an amplifier is a quantity called drift referred, o the input, and unless specifically stated otherwise, this quantity is the one implied when the term drift is used. Drift referred to the input is defined with reference to Fig. 7.1. This figure shows an amplifier with an assumed desired output voltage of zero for zero input voltage. The amplifier is initially balanced by making v, 0, and adjusting some amplifier parameter (shown diagrammatically in Fig. 7. I as a variable resistor) until v0 = 0. An external quantity, such as temperature, supply voltage, or time, is then changed and, if the amplifier is sensitive to this quantity, its output voltage changes.
An input voltage is then applied to the amplifier, and v1 is adjusted until r0 again equals zero. The drift referred to the input of the amplifier is equal to the value of r, necessary to zero the output. The resultant magnitude is often normalized and specified. for example, as volts per degree Centigrade, volts per volt (of supply voltage), or volts per week.
The minimum-detectable-signal aspect of this definition is self- evident.
In many situations we are concerned not only with the variability of the circuit as some external influencing factor is changed, but also with uncertainties that arise from the manufacturing process. In these cases, rather than initially balancing the circuit, the voltage that must be applied to its input to make its output zero may be specified as the offvei referred to the input.
The specifications related to drift and offset are at times combined by listing the maximum input offset that will result from manufacturing variations and over a range of operating conditions.
There is a tendency to use an alternative (incorrect) definition of drift, which involves dividing the drift measured at the output of the amplifier by the amplifier gain. The difficulty in this approach arises since the gain is frequently dependent on the drift-stimulating variable.
While alternative measurements of drift or offset may be equivalent in special cases, and are often used in the laboratory to simplify a measurement procedure, it is necessary to insure equivalence of other methods for each circuit. We shall normally use the original definitions for our calculations.
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