Force and Torque Sensors in measurement system

A method to measure force (or torque) is to compare it with a known force, as is done on scales. Another method consists of measuring the effect of the
force on an elastic element, called a lo...

Flow Velocity and Flow-rate sensors in measurement system

Flow is the movement of a fluid in a channel or in open or closed conduits. The flow rate is the quantity of matter, in volume or weight, that flows in a
unit time. Flow-rate measurements are ...

What is a Pressure Sensor?

Pressure measurement in liquids or gases is common, particularly in process control. Pressure is defined as the force per unit area. To measure a pres-
sure, it is either compared with a known...

Bimetals Temperature Sensors

A bimetal is a sensor formed by two metals having different thermal expansion coefficients that are firmly joined, for example, by welding and that are
exposed to the same temperature. Wheneve...

Input Characteristic Impedance

The description of sensors by means of their static and dynamic characteristics is in no way complete. To illustrate why, let us consider the following situations: To prevent the wiper in a potenti...

Second-order Measurement Systems in dynamic characteristic

A sensor is of second order when it contains two energy-storing elements and one energy-dissipating element. Its input x(r) and output y(t) are related by a second-order linear differential equatio...

First-order Measurrement Systems in Dynamic Characteristic

In a first-order sensor there is an element that stores energy and another one that dissipates it. The relation between the input r(r) and the output y(l) is described by a differential equation th...

Dynamic Characteristic Zero-order Measurement System

In a zero-order sensor its output is related to its input by means of an equation of the type


y(.t):k'x(t) (1.3)


Its behavio...

Dynamic Characteristics in Measurement System

The sensor response to variable input signals is different from that exhibited when input signals are constant, described by means of static characteristics. The reason is the piesence of energy-st...

Characteristics of Measurement Systems: Systematic and Random Errors

The static calibration of a sensor allows us to detect and correct the so-called systematic errors.
An error is said to be systematic when in the course of measuring the same value of a given ...

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