Bimetals Temperature Sensors

Bimetals Temperature Sensors

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On: 16 Jun, 2019

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A bimetal is a sensor formed by two metals having different thermal expansion coefficients that are firmly joined, for example, by welding and that are
exposed to the same temperature. Whenever the temperature changes, the piece changes its s...

A bimetal is a sensor formed by two metals having different thermal expansion coefficients that are firmly joined, for example, by welding and that are
exposed to the same temperature. Whenever the temperature changes, the piece changes its shape-and curves to form a uniform circular arc. In the notation of Figure 1.1 1, the radius of curvature r, when changing from a temperature 11 to another 72, is given by [2]:

temperature sensors bimetals 1.png

I : the total thickness of the piece
n: the ratio between moduli of elasticity : EslEe
m - the ratio between thicknesses : tsl t6
oA, /yB : the thermal expansion coefficients

temperature sensors bimetals 2.png

If use is made of metals having similar moduli of elasticity and thicknesses (m = l, n = l), which is the usual practice, equation (1.25) reduces to

temperature sensors bimetals 3.png

Therefore the radius of curvature is inversely proportional to the difference between temperatures. A position or displacement sensor would yield a
corresponding electric signal. Alternatively, the force exerted by a total or partially bonded or clamped element can be measured. In practice, thicknesses from 10 g,m to 3 mm are common. To achieve a high sensitivity, it is desirable to have ap ( 0, but given that there is not any useful metal having that property, use is made of invar (an alloy of steel and nickel) that shows a : 1.7 x 10-6/'C. As metal A, brass and other proprietary alloys are used.

These devices are used in the range from -75'C to *540"C, and mostly from 0"C to *300"C. They are manufactured in forms such as cantilever, spiral, helix, and diaphragm, and the force or displacement they undergo is measured. They are also used to directly open or close contacts (thermostats, on-off controls) and as thermal protection elements in electric circuit interrupters. In electric circuit interrupters the current flows along the element that experiences a heating by Joule effect until it reaches a temperature high enough to exert a mechanical force on a trigger device that opens the circuit and interrupts the current flow. other nonmeasurement applications are the thermal compensation of temperature-sensitive devices and fire alarms. Their response is slow because of their high mass.

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