Complete Car Electrical System Material - Definition, Components and Circuits

Complete Car Electrical System Material - Definition, Components and Circuits

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On: 22 Okt, 2020

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A car, it's not just about the engine. But, there is a chassis there is also electricity. Even though it is not the main part, the car engine requires electric assistance for combustion to occur.

For example spark plugs, the spark plug wil...

A car, it's not just about the engine. But, there is a chassis there is also electricity. Even though it is not the main part, the car engine requires electric assistance for combustion to occur.

For example spark plugs, the spark plug will light up when there is electricity. Therefore the electricity system has an important role in a kemdaraan.

Understanding the Car Electrical System

The car electrical system is a series of electrical energy arranged to perform a specific function in a car.

In other words, all systems that utilize electrical energy enter the car's electrical system.

Car electrical system functions

Allows the spark plugs to pop so that the gasoline engine can run
As a machine security and safety system
The electrical system can increase driving comfort

Kinds of Car Electrical Systems

The electrical system in the car is very extensive. If it is segmented, then there are several groups of electricity systems, namely;

1. Machine electrical system

machine electrical system

The engine electrical system is all the electrical circuits found in a car engine. The function of the engine's electrical system is to help engine performance to be more efficient.

For example, on spark plugs. Spark plugs can spark sparks because there is a process of changing electrical energy to fire energy. This change process is carried out in a series of engine electrical systems.

Apart from spark plugs, there are several electrical points on the engine, namely;

a. starter system

The starter system is an electrical circuit that functions in the engine cranking process. Cranking is the initial rotation that makes the engine crankshaft rotate, so that the first combustion of the engine can occur.

b. charging system

The charging system is an electrical circuit that provides the electric current supply for the car's electrical system. The charging system converts some of the engine speed into electrical energy through a dynamo. So that the need for car electricity is always available.

c. ignition system

The ignition system is an electrical scheme to make the spark plug give off a spark when it steps to work. To perform this process, the ignition system utilizes electromagnetic induction to increase the battery voltage (12 V).

d. glow plug system (diesel)

Glow plug or glow plug is a combustion chamber heater that functions to increase the temperature of the diesel engine combustion chamber when the engine temperature is still cold. So that the starting process is not interrupted,

e. efi system

The efi system or injection system is an integrated electrical circuit (IC) which functions to supply gasoline to the engine with an ideal volume in all conditions.

f. commonrail system (diesel)

Common rail is an integrated electrical scheme that regulates the supply of diesel into the combustion chamber with the ideal volume in all conditions. Commonrail is almost the same as the efi system, but it is used in diesel engines.

2. Body electrical system

body electrical system

The body electrical system is a series of electricity contained in the vehicle body. This system is separate from the engine, but still has the same power source.

The body electrical system also has several points as follows:

a. exterior lighting system

The exterior lighting system functions in terms of illuminating the exterior of the car. For example, headlights, fog lights or city lights.

b. interior lighting system

The interior lighting system functions in terms of lighting the car cabin. For example, the cabin interior lights can be turned on manually (via a button) or automatically when opening a car door.

c. warning system

A warning system is an electrical scheme that will provide a signal to other motorists.

For example, the turn signal which indicates the vehicle will turn in one direction. Then the brake lights indicate that the vehicle is braking and other examples are the horn and reverse lights.

3. Infotainment system

The infotainment system is a combination of info and entertainment. Its function is to provide information regarding the condition of the car in general and provide access to entertainment for users.

Examples of electrical systems that enter the infotainment include

a. multi-info display

The more familiar multi-info display (MID) is referred to as a speedometer. Here not only provides car speed data, but there are oil indicator lights, airbag indicators, fuel indicators, and check engine indicators.

b. audio and video

Audio seems to be a mandatory feature on a car, because with this feature users can play songs and listen to the radio. In the latest version, an LCD panel is provided to play video content.

c. USB port and cigarette lighter

This feature is used as cellphone chargers, with the proliferation of smartphone users making cars also have effective cellphone charging stations.

4. Chassis electrical system

chassis electrical system

The chassis electrical system is an electrical circuit located on the chassis and powertrain of the car. This system functions to facilitate and maximize power transfer from the engine to the wheels.

So, in addition to being more effective, the car will also be safer.

Examples of chassis electrical systems include:

a. ABS and EBD systems

The ABS system works to prevent slippage when you step on the brake pedal. Meanwhile, EBD helps distribute braking power according to the required braking load.

b. HSA, Traction control, stability control

You will find this feature in the SUV, its function is clear to keep the car safe when on a mountain track.

c. Differential clutch

In AWD-driven cars, you will usually find an electronic differential clutch that functions to connect and disconnect one of the differentials on the car.

d. Transmission solenoid

The automatic transmission system utilizes a solenoid to shift gears. And the performance of this solenoid is also regulated by the chassis electrical system.

5. Security and safety systems

Modern car security systems no longer use mechanical objects, but many have used electrical circuits to make them more efficient.

Examples of electrical systems in the safety and security sector include:

a. bag inflator control

The airbag system is an injury prevention system during an accident. The air pocket will expand to avoid impact in the head area. And the bag inflator control is an electrical circuit that regulates when the airbag will expand.

b. immobilizer

The current anti-theft system uses a frequency-based ignition key. The immobilizer key emits waves to the car, if the waves match, the car can be turned on. But if not, the car will not start.

c. alarm system

An alarm system is a warning given to people near the car to indicate that there is physical interference with the car. Example when the car body is touched by ignorant hands.

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