Comprehensive theory of car electrical system - Definition, Components and Circuits

Comprehensive theory of car electrical system - Definition, Components and Circuits

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A car is not only engine, but also frame or chassis and electrical. Although, not main component but car engine need another component to works it needs electrical system to make combustion. For example, spark plug needs electrical system to produ...

A car is not only engine, but also frame or chassis and electrical. Although, not main component but car engine need another component to works it needs electrical system to make combustion. For example, spark plug needs electrical system to produce combustion. Therefore, electrical system has an important role in a vehicle.

The definition electrical system in vehicle

Car electrical system is a series of electrical energy arranged to carry out certain functions in a car. In other words, All systems that utilize electrical energy come into the car's electrical system.

The function of car electrical system

  • Allows spark plugs to ignite so that the gasoline engine can work
  • As security system and engine safety
  • Electrical system can add comfort while driving

The types of electrical system in vehicle

  1. Engine electrical system

engine electrical system

engine electrical system

Engine electrical system is all series of electrical which found at car engine. The function of engine electrical system is to help the engine's performance be more efficient.

For example: spark plug can produce firework cause of transformation process from electrical energy to fire energy. The transformation process occurred in a series of engine electrical system.

Another spark plug, there are a few points toward engine following below:

  1. Starter system

Starter system is a series of electrical functioned at engine cranking process. Cranking is an initial rotation that makes the engine crankshaft rotates, so the first combustion of the engine can occur.

  1. Charging system

Charging system is an electrical series which provides the supply of electric current for car electrical systems. The charging system converts a portion of the engine's rotation into electrical energy through a dynamo. So that the car's electricity needs are always available.

  1. Ignition system

Ignition system is electrical schematic to stimulate spark plug to produce firework this process called ignition. To carry out this process, the ignition system utilizes electromagnetic induction to increase the battery voltage (12 V).

  1. Glow plug system (diesel)

Glow plug is a combustion chamber heater that functionally increases the temperature of the diesel engine combustion chamber when the engine temperature is still cold. So, that the starting process is not interrupted.

  1. Efi system

Efi system or injection system is integrated electrical circuit (IC) which serves to supply gasoline to the engine with the ideal volume in all conditions.

  1. Common rail system

Common rail is a part of integrated electrical schematic which manage supply diesel into the combustion chamber with an ideal volume in all conditions. Common rail has similarity with Efi system or injection system, but this is used on diesel engines.

  1. Electrical system of the body

electrical system of the body

electrical system of the body

Electrical system of the body is an electrical circuit which occurs at car’s body. This system separated with engine, but still has same electrical source.

Electrical system on the body also had a few points as follow:

      - Exterior lighting system

Exterior lighting system serves to provide lighting outside the cabin. For example, headlamp, fog lamp and city lights.

      - Interior lighting system

Interior lighting system serves to provide lighting surrounding car’s cabin. For example, interior light cabin can switch on manually (via button) or automatically when open car’s door.

      - Alert system

Alert system is an electrical schematic to deliver a signal or signaling another driver. For example turn signal lamp which deliver a turn signal in one of directions to another driver. Then a break lamp which delivers a signal that vehicle is breaking and another example is horn or reverse lamp.

  1. Infotainment system

Infotainment system is a combination of info and entertainment. Functionally to deliver an info related to car’s condition commonly and gives an access user for entertainment.

The examples electrical system related to infotainment including:

  1. Multi info display

Multi info displays stand for MID or commonly known as speedometer. In this case, not only provide speed car’s data, but also lamp indicator for oil, indicator for air bag, indicator for fuel and indicator check engine.

     2. Audio and video

Audio is an essential feature in the car, with this feature user can play song and listen radio, in new version, provided LCD panel to watch video.

    3. USB port and cigarette lighter

This feature used for charging a phone, how popular smartphone users today required car also had charging chamber to charge phone effectively.

  1. Electrical chassis system

electrical chassis system

electrical chassis system

Electrical chassis system is a series of electricity occur at chassis and car’s powertrain. This system serves to make an easy and to maximize energy transformation from engine to wheel.

So, besides being more effective the car will also be safer.

Examples of chassis electrical systems include:

  • ABS and EBD system

ABS system serves to prevent slippage when we step on brake pedal. Meanwhile EBD serves to distribute braking energy based on heavy braking needed.

  • HSA, Traction control, stability control

In this SUV you will find this feature, its function is clearly to keep the car safe when on mountain tracks.

  • Differential Clutch

In AWD-driven cars, electronic differential clutch will usually be found which serves to connect and disconnect one of the differentials on the car.

  • Transmission solenoid

The Automatic transmission system utilizes a solenoid to shift gears. And the performance of this solenoid is also regulated by the chassis electrical system.

  • Security and safety system

Modern car security systems no longer use mechanical objects, but many have used electrical circuits to make them more efficient.

Examples of electrical systems in the safety and security sector include:

  • Bag inflator control

An airbag system is an injury prevention system in the event of an accident. Air bags will expand to avoid collisions in the head area. And the bag inflator control is an electrical circuit that regulates when air bags will expand.

  • Immobilizer

Anti-theft system now uses frequency-based ignition. The immobilizer key emits waves to the car, if the waves match then the car can be turned on. But if not, the car will not be started.

  • Alarm system

The alarm system is a warning given to people who are near the car to indicate there is a physical disturbance in the car. Example when the car body is touched by ignorant hands.


This is an article about the car electrical system. Hopefully it can add our knowledge.

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