Dc Motor Reversing Circuit Electronic Circuit Diagram
Updated by: Ruby
On: 13 Jun, 2016
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Rated 4 / 5 based on 186 reviewsQuestion:I've been searching the posts for a solution and found some posts with partial answers but nothing with a complete circuit. I need to build a 12vdc power seat track tester that will run continuously until it is shut off. I need to run...
Question:I've been searching the posts for a solution and found some posts with partial answers but nothing with a complete circuit. I need to build a 12vdc power seat track tester that will run continuously until it is shut off. I need to run a motor in one direction (FWD) until a limit switch on the seat track is hit. Then wait for a short time delay (5-10 sec). The motor will then reverse direction until it hits the (REV) direction limit switch. The time delay will then activate again and turn the motor in the FWD direction. This forward / reverse motion will continue until something breaks or it is turned off. I have some DPDT, 555 timers, limit switches, and some various diodes & resistors. I've done a few other circuits, but not any circuit design so I need schematics, not just descriptions. Just learning as I go. I would rather do this with relays and the 555 than use a micro controller since I'd have to learn that first. Any advise will appreciated.
Question:I have not constructed this, but designed it for a now stalled project. It should do what you want. This uses active braking. C1 and Relay 3 cuts the power to the motor, applies the braking resistor, and provides the delay before the motor starts in the opposite direction.
Description: and the motor cannot be switched from forward to reverse unless the stop switch is pressed first.
NotesExcept for the back emf diodes across the relay coils this circuit is identical in function to the example shown on the relay contact labeling guide in the practical section. At first glance this may look over-complicated, but this is simply because three non-latching push button switches are used. When the forward button is pressed and released the motor will run continuously in one direction. The Stop button must be used before pressing the reverse button. The reverse button will cause the motor to run continuously in the opposite direction, or until the stop button is used. Putting a motor straight into reverse would be quite dangerous, because when running a motor develops a back emf voltage which would add to current flow in the opposite direction and probably cause arcing of the relay contacts. This circuit has a built-in safeguard against that condition.
Circuit OperationAssume that the motor is not running and that all relays are unenergized. When the forward button is pressed, a positive battery is applied via the NC contacts of B1 to the coil of relay RA/2. This will operate as the return path is via the NC contacts of D1. Relay RA/2 will operate. Contacts A1 maintain power to the relay even though the forward button is released.
Contacts A2 apply power to the motor which will now run continuously in one direction. If now the reverse button is pressed, nothing happens because the positive supply for the switch is fed via the NC contact A1, which is now open because Relay RA/2 is energized. To Stop the motor the Stop switch is pressed, Relay D operates and its contact D1 breaks the power to relays A and B, (only Relay A is operated at the moment). If the reverse switch is now pressed and released. Relay B operates via NC contact A1 and NC contact D1. Contact B1 closes and maintains power so that the relay is now latched, even when the reverse switch is opened. Relay RC/2 will also be energized and latched. Contact B2 applies power to the motor but as contacts C1 and C2 have changed position, the motor will now run continuously in the opposite direction. Pressing the forward button has no effect as power to this switch is broken via the now open NC contact B1. If the stop button is now pressed. Relay D energizes, its contact D1 breaks power to relay B, which in turn breaks power to relay C via the NO contact of B1 and of course the motor will stop. All very easy. The capacitor across relay D is there to make sure that relay D will operate at least longer than the time relays A,B and C take to release.
Correction to DiagramIn the original circuit when the Stop switch was pressed, relay RA remains energized, its holding current path is through relay coils RB and RC. To fix this relay D has two contacts, D2 now breaks power to the relay coil. Special thanks to Joseph Cremona from Malta for pointing this mistake out.
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