POWER TRANSFORMERS MAGNETIC-CORE TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS
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Power transfbrmers operate from a low source impedance at a low frequency. Depending on the source of power, the frequency may vary as much as +5.57o at 50 or 60 Hz, and as much as +207o at 400 Hz. construction of transformer, working of transform...
Power transfbrmers operate from a low source impedance at a low frequency. Depending on the source of power, the frequency may vary as much as +5.57o at 50 or 60 Hz, and as much as +207o at 400 Hz. construction of transformer, working of transformer,types of transformer,transformer equation etc.
Types of Magnetic Cores
The magnetic cores used for power transformers are usually E and 1 laminations stamped from silicon-iron sheet when low cost is of primary importance. When minimum size or low loss is of greatest concern, wound-cut "C" cores of oriented silicon steel or the more expensive Supermendur could be considered.
Table I lists basic properties of soft magnetic materials. Table 2 gives the maximum-flux-density operating conditions for various core materials at 60 and 400 hertz. Two types of laminations are listed as typical, although there are more types that are of both a higher and lower grade. The 0.014 M-6 material is of a higher grade than the 0.0185 M-19 material, but the cost of the former may be 5070 more per pound than the cost of the latter, depending on the lamination size chosen. On the other hand, less of the better-grade material is required for the same performance. In a recent study,it was shown that transformers and reactors constructed of the higher-grade materials were always smaller, as expected, but that in some cases the total material cost of the structures having'the better-grade laminations was the lowest.
Wound-cut "C" cores are wound in tape form on a rectangular mandrel, impregnated, and cut into halves. These halves are then banded around the wound transformer coil. The sheet-form magnetic materials may also be made in thin strip form and supplied as toroidal tape-wound bobbin cores for high frequencies. The 79 permalloy in 0.000 125-inch tape thickness on a bobbin core may be used at frequencies as high as 1 MHz. These cores are not cut into halves.
Tables 1 and 2 make reference to "Metallic Glass." METGLAST is Allied Corporation's registered trademark for amorphous alloys of metals. This material is new to the list of available core materials. Its advantage is low core loss and exciting volt-amperes. It is currently manufactured in ribbon form with a nominal thickness of 0.0011 inch and widths of 1.0 to 4.0 inches. The material can be stamped into laminations, but the form lends itself best to tape-wound cores. METGLAS material was originally developed for low-frequency power transformers at a commercially competitive price compared with the standard Si-Fe material. The general-purpose alloy with the formulation Fesl 813.5 Si3.5C2, known as Alloy 2605SC, is specified in Tables I and 2. Other alloys are available.
The approximate number of exciting volt-amperes is largely dependendent on the air gap or equivalent air gap in series with the magnetic path. The values specified in'Table 2 arc for the material exclusive of the air gap. Information on core loss and exciting volt-amperes for specific lamination sizes may be obtained from Thomas and Skinner.
Similar information for cut-cores may be obtained from catalogs of the Arnold Engineering Co.
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