Radio Frequency Circuits Design

Radio Frequency Circuits Design

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The designer of amateur equipment needs to be familiar with radio-frequency circuits and the various related equations. This section provides the basic data for most amateur circuit development.

Coupled circuits and filters

Two cir...

The designer of amateur equipment needs to be familiar with radio-frequency circuits and the various related equations. This section provides the basic data for most amateur circuit development.

Coupled circuits and filters

Two circuits are said to be coupled when a voltage or current in one network produces a voltage or current in the other. The network where the energy originates is often called the primary circuit, and the network that receives the energy is called the secondary circuit. Such coupling is often desirable since, in the process, unwanted frequency components or noise may be rejected or isolated, and power may be transferred from a source to a load with greatest efficiency. On the other hand, two or more circuits may be coupled inadvertently and undesirable effects produced. While a great number of coupling –circuit configurations are possible, one very important class covers so many practical applications that it will be analyzed in detail. This class includes ladder networks and filters.

Ladder networks

Any two circuits that are coupled can be drawn schematically as shown in figure 71A. A voltage source represented by Eac with a source resistance Rp and a source reactance Xp is connected to the input of the coupling network, thus forming the primary circuit. At the output, a load reactance Xs and a load resistance Rs are connected as shown to form the secondary circuit. The circuit in the box could consist of an infinite variety of resistors, capacitors, inductors and even transmission lines. However, it will be assumed that the network can be reduced to a combination of series and shunt elements consisting only of inductors and capacitors, as indicated by the circuit shown in Fig. 71 B. for obvious reasons, the circuit is often called a ladder network. In addition, if no resistive elements are represent or if such elements can be neglected, the network is said to be dissipation less. It will consume no power.

If a network is dissipationless, all the power delivered to the input of the network will be dissipated in the load resistance, Rs. This effect leads to important simplifications in computations involved in coupled networks. The assumption of a dissipationless network is usually not valid with transmitting circuits since even a small network loss (0.5 dB) will result in considerable heating at the higher power levels used in amateur applications. On the other hand, coupled circuits used in some receiving stages may haveconsiderable loss. This is because the network may have some advantage and its high loss can be compensated by additional amplification in another stage. However such a devices from relatively small minority of coupled networks commonly encountered, and only the dissipationslkess case will be considered in this section.

 

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